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Children of a Clayton's God: part 4
AN INSIGHT INTO MORMONISM:

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SUMMARY: 
Smith claims that during his time of prayer (based on James 1:5) he received a direct visitation from God Himself and Jesus Christ both in bodily forms. God told him not to join any churches, as they were all abominations. To discerning Christians this should immediately ring alarm bells. Interestingly enough the LDS church portrays Smith falling backwards when he received this ‘visitation’.

MORMONISM stands or falls upon the testimony of Joseph Smith. Every Mormon missionary you may encounter will, sooner or later, testify that The Book of Mormon is true, that Joseph Smith was a true prophet and that he “restored the church”. They will also say that their leader, currently Gordon B. Hinckley, is a prophet who hears from God.
Every fi rst Sunday of the month a time is set-aside for church members “to bear their testimony”. This is supposed to be faith promoting and uplifting, but I know that many of them struggle with doubts about their faith especially their being acceptable to God. It’s good to remember this, as it provides a window of opportunity, especially with loved ones, who have become Mormons.
Mormons, who “bear their testimony” all sound the same, like a cracked record playing over and over again. Just before writing this article I sat through another Sunday morning, listening to Mormons testify. How sad hearing people who are spiritually dead bearing testimony to a ‘god’ who cannot hear, see or speak; how strong the delusional power of Satan! Here’s an example from an incident that took place on Sunday, April 30th 2006 that grieved my heart:
I was attending the ward meeting as usual when the fi rst speaker went up to give her talk. (Normally, in a ward meeting there will be three speakers per Sunday, each asked to give a talk on a specifi c subject.)
This lady said she came into the Mormon Church in 1994 as a “born again” Christian who had been attending an AOG church for a number of years. She said she spoke in tongues and did the normal “Pentecostal things”, and then one day she met some missionaries who gave her the Book of Mormon to read. They followed her up with their teaching lessons and she was baptized into the Mormon church. There were issues with her speaking in tongues *1.
She was told she had another spirit (a demon) and she had to renounce this spirit. Some Mormon priesthood holders supposedly exorcised this spirit.
What has to be said here is that even if you profess to be born again you are not exempt from deception. Some may say that the woman wasn’t truly born again, but my response would be, “How do you know the state of the woman’s heart? Only God knows the thoughts and intents of a person’s heart” cf. Hebrews 4:12.
What grieves me most is the fact that this woman may have blasphemed the Holy Spirit by attributing the works of God to Satan, which was the unforgivable sin referred to in Mark 3:22-30 (cf. Matthew 12: 31-33).
I have personally witnessed the true “gift of speaking in tongues”. I am also aware that in some Charismatic and Pentecostal circles there is false teaching that tongues can be learned. I have personally witnessed many shocking incidents of this abuse in church. There is an old saying, “The best deception is the one that runs closest to the truth”.
An analysis of the historic Mormon church reveals that its entire foundation was laid on deception, as I hope to prove. ... Jospeph Smith was deceived and now continues to deceive 12 million members
The question that really needs to be asked is “What can be done to avoid believers falling into the trap of deception?”
One simple and effective answer is to counteract false religions and cults with solid biblical exposition of the Word of God. Unfortunately this is very rare today especially amongst Pentecostal and Charismatic churches and it’s starting to show in Baptist churches too. So you can expect incidents like this lady turning to Mormonism to increase in the near future.
Unfortunately many professing Christians don’t read and study their Bibles! How can anyone who professes to follow Christ know what His teachings are if they don’t read what He has to say? They trust in what is preached from the pulpit instead of checking what is taught.
When the Toronto abomination was running in the late 1990s, my family and I were attending a local AOG fellowship where the pastor encouraged everyone to “jump into this thing” without checking fi rst what they were actually jumping into. I confronted him about the many wrong things that he was saying from the pulpit and showed him that he was actually taking verses out of context.
I presented him with evidence from many reliable and well-respected sources, but he refused to listen. This went on for a period of weeks until I had a visit one Saturday morning from the associate pastor and the board of elders. I was accused of causing division and sowing discord so I politely asked them to show me from scripture where I was wrong in the things that I was saying. They couldn’t. My point is that they were deceived.
The spirit of deception is very strong in the Mormon church. This deception runs from the head of the church down to the grass roots members. An analysis of the historic Mormon church reveals that its entire foundation was laid on deception, as I hope to prove. I will show that Joseph Smith was deceived and now continues to deceive 12 million Mormon members.
The trap that ensnares an individual is in the Book of Mormon (BOM) itself. And when ye shall receive these things, I would exhort you that ye would ask God, the Eternal Father, in the name of Christ, if these things are not true; and if ye shall ask with a sincere heart, with real intent, having faith in Christ, he will manifest the truth of it unto you, by the power of the Holy Ghost. And by the power of the Holy Ghost ye may know the truth of all things (Moroni 10:4-5).
The onus is placed on the individual to pray with a sincere heart and REAL INTENT and a manifestation of “Burning in the Bosom” *2 is generally regarded as the sign you will receive. If you don’t receive acknowledgements that the BOM is true then you haven’t prayed sincerely or with real intent so your integrity comes under suspicion. I have witnessed this many times within Mormonism.
To those of you who have loved ones caught in this trap or who know friends or workmates investigating Mormonism a very effective way to torpedo the attack is to ask the person, “Where in the Bible does it say to do this?”
Also if you have the opportunity ask the Mormon elder, “Is your faith based on feelings?” (In other words is their faith experiential?)
Ask them where does faith come from. They will give you a number of answers none of which will be scriptural. Take them to Romans 10:17—“So then faith comes by hearing and hearing by the word of God” (KJV).
Mormons will exert subtle psychological pressure on any individual who is investigating the church to cause them to join with the offer to belong to a loving, caring family and to have fellowship...
Then emphasise strongly that faith comes by hearing God’s Word not praying about a book that is nothing more than a spiritual trap. I have often said to Mormons quite bluntly that praying about a book has no basis whatsoever in scripture, doing that and seeking a sign is like a bank robber praying about his next heist. His desire is to rob a bank so that his life can be gratifi ed and the same applies here.
The correct biblical method is to “try (i.e. prove) all things” (1 Thessalonians 5:21) by using the Bible as a yardstick.
Unfortunately this problem is also in the Christian church, especially amongst Pentecostals and Charismatics with their false teachings of the Toronto, ALPHA and Pensacola movements. The foolish leaders who jumped in fi rst, instead of “testing the spirits” (1 John 4:1), have ensnared the people and together they have gone headlong into deception.
The same leaders are now caught up with the false Apostles and Prophets, the unbiblical Spiritual Warfare and the Transformations movements espoused by C. Peter Wagner, George Otis, and Cindy Jacobs et al. Mormon missionaries and members will exert subtle psychological pressure on any individual who is investigating the church to cause them to join with the offer to belong to a loving, caring family and to have fellowship with likeminded people. Many people just buckle under the pressure so that they can be accepted and have a feeling of belonging. All mind control groups use this tactic to win converts.
Question—should a Christian pray about the Book Of Mormon and look for a “burning bosom” sign to verify whether it’s true or not?
Answer—NO, the Bible teaches us to be like the Bereans.
These were nobler than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so (Acts 17:11 KJV). We are to search the scripture, test what is taught and hold on to what is true. Any new “revelation” must be tested. If it contradicts scripture then it must be rejected. God always puts in place checks and balances. If prophecy is given in church it must be judged against scripture, but unfortunately this does not happen often enough and people start to go off at tangents. Pastor Aeron Morgan has just released his The Biblical Testing of Teachings and Manifestations, which is most timely in the present climate of today’s church. I strongly suggest that you get a copy of this book and read it carefully and prayerfully. It lays out beautifully, line upon line precept upon precept, the correct biblical pattern to test all things. *3
The church is in such a mess because its leaders have been deceived and they have gathered around them men deceived like themselves who do not want to follow biblical guidelines just as scripture foretells:
For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own desires they shall accumulate for themselves teachers, having itching ears they shall turn their ears away from the truth, and shall be turned aside to myths (2 Timothy 4: 3-4). I am committed to the canon of scripture and to its testimony that in the last days God has spoken totally, fi nally and completely to us in, through and by His Son:
God, who at sundry times and in diverse manner spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, Has in these last days spoken to us by [his] Son, whom he has appointed heir of all things, by whom he also made the worlds (Hebrews 1:1-2 KJV).
To understand the essence of Mormonism you really have to investigate the life of Joseph Smith, which in fi nalising my series I now propose to do briefl y by answering two questions:
1) Is the Joseph Smith of today’s Mormonism the Joseph Smith of history?
2) How did the Mormons come by their holy book, The Book of Mormon?
JOSEPH SMITH
Man of history or human invention?
There are many fi ne books about Joseph Smith
e.g. Upon His Own Hand Upon Papyrus by Charles M. Larsen (available by download at: http://www. irr.org/MIT/Books/BHOH/bhoh1.html) and
Fawn Brodie’s book No Man Knows My History: The Life of Joseph Smith the Mormon Prophet, and
the forty or so books written by Jerald and Sandra Tanner that have exposed Smith for who he really was. Born at Sharon in Vermont, USA in 1805, in 2005 Mormons celebrated the bicentennial of his birth, bordering in my opinion on gross idolatry.
The Mormon church’s magazine Ensign, (which can be downloaded from their website http://www.lds. org/gospellibrary/pdfmagazine/0.7779.592-6-1- 2005.00.html) devoted the January and December edition to Smith. The church has a heavy bias towards Smith and the “Restoration”. If the foundation (i.e. that of Joseph Smith) is broken down then, the whole facade of Mormonism’s false gospel will crumble in a heap.
So then, how does history portray the real Joseph Smith? Was this man a true prophet of God who restored the true “church” and “priesthood” back to earth in 1830?
How did Joseph Smith receive the “divine revelations” and can these “revelations” be substantiated by the Bible?
Who was the real Joseph Smith?
In other words is he the same person portrayed by the Latter Day Saints (LDS) church today as he was back in 1830? All these questions require us to decide what is fact and what is fi ction.
Joseph Smith is a remarkable character for someone who lived for only 39 years. In so short a time this man set up a religion, a bank in Kirtland Ohio, which incidentally a bank in Kirtland Ohio, which incidentally failed because it issued its own currency without the permission of the United States Treasury *4.
Joseph Smith was indicted and arrested numerous times yet managed to escape *5.
He built the city of Nauvoo, which at the time was the largest city in Ohio. He became General of the Nauvoo Legion (a militia unit and it has to be noted that Smith had no military training) and ran for President of the United States. He was a polygamist who at his death in 1844 had over 33 wives. Of these wives two were fourteen years old AND ELEVEN OF THEM were under the age of twenty!
What about Smith’s Military career?
Wikipedia, the internet encyclopaedia gives a good background on the Nauvoo Legion: “The Nauvoo Legion was a private militia employed by Joseph
Smith, Jr and Brigham Young during the Latter Day Saint movement until 1870 for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church; see also “Mormon”). The Legion was named for the city of its inception, Nauvoo, Illinois, although it only operated there for six years. Although the charter authorising the Nauvoo Legion created an independent militia, it could be used at the disposal of the state governor or the president of the United States as well as for the mayor of Nauvoo. Joseph Smith himself was Nauvoo’s second mayor, and the Nauvoo court martial also appointed him as highest-ranking offi cer of the legion, a lieutenant general. This rank is one step above major general which most contemporary militias employed as their commanding rank. One motive for the higher rank was to prevent Smith from being tried in a court martial by offi cers of lesser rank. In 1837 the Missouri militia had contemplated an illegal court martial against Smith, only a civilian at that time. The tenth president (1970-72) and prophet, seer and revelator of the LDS church, Joseph Fielding Smith, made this statement: Mormonism, as it is called, must stand or fall on the story of Joseph Smith. He was either a prophet of God, divinely called, properly appointed and commissioned, or he was one of the biggest frauds this world has ever seen. There is no middle ground. —Doctrines of Salvation, Page 188. To appreciate the signifi cance of this incredible statement you must have an understanding of Joseph Smith’s First Vision Account.6 There are nine different versions of this account. All of them vary as to date, content, the actual age of Smith and they effectively contradict each other. The LDS offi cial account states that Smith was fourteen and that there was a religious revival taking place in the Palmyra district at the time. Allegedly, Smith became burdened as to which church he should join so he went into the woods to pray. James 1:5 was the verse Smith was allegedly given. If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all men liberally and not upbraid; and it shall be given him (James 1:5 KJV). Mormons love to quote this. Every Mormon missionary will at some stage quote it to you. Looking at the actual context (i.e. James chapter 1) will quickly disarm this verse. All cults will twist and manipulate scripture to make it fi t into their doctrine. James chapter 1 verse 5 deals in context about coming under trials and tribulation.
Albert Barnes’ Notes on James 1 makes these comments:
The general subject of temptation or trial, James 1:1-15. It is evident that those to whom the epistle was directed were, at that time, suffering in some form, or that they were called to pass through temptations, and that they needed counsel and support. They were in danger of sinking in despondency of murmuring and complaining and of charging God as the author of temptation and of sin.
This part of the chapter comprises the following topics:
1. The salutation, James1:1.
2. The subject of temptations or trials. They were to regard it, not as a subject of sorrow, but of gladness and joy, that they were called to pass through trials; for if borne in a proper manner, they would produce the grace of patience, and this was to be regarded as an object worth being secured, even by much suffering, James 1:2-4.
3. If in their trials they felt that they had lacked the wisdom, which they needed to enable them to bear them in a proper manner, they had the privilege of looking to God, and seeking it at His hand. This was a privilege conceded to all, and if it were asked in faith, without any wavering, it would certainly be granted, James 1:5-7.
The claim Smith was making is unscriptural and it has been deliberately twisted to deceive the unwary. It is also worth noting that a search of church records in the Palmyra district does not mention any revival there in 1820, which Joseph Smith’s First Vision Account claims. The historical record clearly shows that a small revival occurred in 1824 amongst the Methodists and Baptists. This is four years after what Smith claims. These records are verifi able from the existing parish records.
This piece of information published by the Institute of Religious Research is most helpful (http://www.irr.org/mit/fvision.html). I highly recommend this site for research.
NO 1820 REVIVAL: Joseph Smith’s neighbourhood experienced no revival in 1820 such as is described in Joseph Smith’s First Vision Account, with supposed great multitudes joining the Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches. According to early sources, including church conference reports, newspapers, church periodicals, presbytery records and published interviews, nothing occurred in 1820-21 that fi ts Smith’s description. There were no signifi cant gains in church membership in the Palmyra- Manchester, New York area, during 1820-21 such as accompany great revivals.
For example, in 1820, the Baptist church in Palmyra received only 8 people through profession of faith and baptism, the Presbyterian church added 14 members, while the Methodist circuit lost 6 members, dropping from 677 in 1819 to 671 in 1820 and down to 622 in 18217.
Smith claims that during his time of prayer (based on James 1:5) he received a direct visitation from God Himself and Jesus Christ both in bodily forms. God told him not to join any churches, as they were all abominations. To discerning Christians this should immediately ring alarm bells. Interestingly enough the LDS church portrays Smith falling backwards when he received this ‘visitation’. Most of those who fell during the so-called “Toronto Blessing” likewise fell backwards.
Throughout scripture God’s holy men always fell FORWARD on their faces before God and unholy men fell backwards. When the guards came to arrest Jesus they fell backwards.
Judas then having received a band of men and offi cers from the chief priests and Pharisees, come there with lanterns and torches and weapons. Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said to them, Whom do you seek?
They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus said to them, I am he. And Judas also, who betrayed him, stood with them.
As soon as he had said to them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground (John 18: 3-6).
Daniel fell on his face before God. Therefore I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me: for my natural colour was turned into deathly pallor, and I retained no strength. I heard the sound of his words: and when I heard the voice of his words, then I was in a deep sleep on my face, and my face toward the ground (Daniel 10:8-9).
John likewise in the book of Revelation fell on his face before the Lord Jesus Christ as did Joshua before the Captain of the Lord’s Host. And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me saying,” Don’t be afraid I am the fi rst and the last” (Revelation 1:17).
And it came about when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there was a man standing opposite him with his sword drawn in his hand: and Joshua went to him, and said to him, Are you for us or for our adversaries? And he said, No; but as captain of the host of the LORD I am come now. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and bowed down and said to him, “What has my lord to say to his servant?” (Joshua 5: 13-14).
Mormonism frequently alters church history by whitewashing or covering over the facts. The unfavourable aspects get altered or covered up completely. This is exactly what happened with accounts of the First Vision.
The current Latter Day Saints (LDS) church president, prophet, seer and revelator, Gordon B. Hinckley, stated in their general conference: Our whole strength rests on the validity of that vision. It either occurred or it did not occur.
If it did not, then this work is a fraud. (Gordon B. Hinckley, “The Marvellous Foundation of Our Faith,” Ensign, Nov. 2002, pg 80)
It is important to look at what other Mormon church leaders have said concerning this. You must remember that these men claim to be prophets of God who are divinely inspired.
Joseph Smith, 1st church president, founder, prophet, seer and revelator said in November 1835—
“...I received the fi rst visitation of angels when I was about 14 years old...” —Personal writings of Joseph Smith, pg. 84. Brigham Young, 2nd church president, prophet, seer and revelator said—
“Do we believe that the Lord sent his messengers to Joseph Smith, and commanded him to refrain from joining any Christian church, and to refrain from the wickedness he saw in the churches, and fi nally delivered to him a message informing him that the Lord was about to establish his kingdom on the earth...” —Journal of Discourses, Vol. 18, pg. 239
George Q. Cannon, apostle, councillor to LDS presidents Young, Taylor, Snow and Woodruff stated -
“But suppose that the statement that Joseph Smith says the angel made to him should be true-that there was no church upon the face of the earth whom God recognised as His, and whose acts He acknowledged—suppose this were true...” Journal of Discourses, vol. 24, pg. 135
Brigham Young, 2nd church president, prophet, seer and revelator stated –
“The Lord did not come with the armies of heaven ... but He did send his angel to this same obscure person, Joseph Smith jun., who afterwards became a prophet, seer, and revelator, and informed him that he should not join any of the religious sects of the day, for they were all wrong.” —Journal of Discourses, vol. 2, p. 171
Clearly the historical record varies from the offi cial church line. There is no mention in any of the church’s records of the visitation of God the father or Jesus. Mormonism frequently alters church history by whitewashing or covering over the facts. The unfavourable aspects get altered or covered up completely. This is exactly what happened with the accounts of the First Vision.
Unfortunately for the LDS church all the claims about this First Vision are in the public arena. They are available in the LDS church’s own writings, but are rarely read so people remain ignorant of the fact that Mormons have re-written their history.
It is worth noting, in passing, that Joseph Smith was a disobedient “prophet”. In 1828 he tried to join the Methodist church despite his “god” telling him that all the churches were abominations.
The Methodists refused him membership because of his occult practices. In 1826 Joseph Smith was arrested and found guilty of “money digging”. Today’s term is simply “FRAUD”. He practised divination with a “seer stone” to seek after buried treasure.
In the First Vision Account, Smith is portrayed in 1820 as a pious young boy who by 1826 is arrested and found guilty of fraud who then translates the BOM using occult means.
The historical Joseph Smith simply does not line up with the Joseph Smith falsely and deceitfully portrayed by the LDS church today as a prophet of God. The question needs to be asked, “Are these the ways and results of a true prophet from God?”
The obvious answer is “No”. The next question that needs to be asked is how did Joseph Smith translate the Book of Mormon? Was it a translation using the correct linguistic tools or did Smith use other means at his disposal? First hand evidence is what we need to look at to answer this question.

TO BE CONTINUED NEXT ISSUE.


Footnotes:
*1 In the Annuals of Mormon History you fi nd references to manifestations of “Tongues”, identical to those witnessed in the Toronto Blessing with people being wildly thrown around the room by the “spirit” and uncontrollable laughter. Today the practice of “tongues” is scorned upon in the mainstream Mormon church. It is not practiced in Elders or High Priest Quorums—http:// www.irr.org/mit/story3.html. It may be practiced in the Temple, where “Adamic” language or, as Mormons refer to it, the Heavenly Language is supposedly spoken— http://www.saintswithouthalos.com/n/tongues.phtml (Be careful this is a PRO Mormon site).
2 The Burning in the bosom is a manifestation most Mormon’s receive. I have spoken to many LDS members who claim this after they have prayed about the Book of Mormon. I have always likened it to having heart burn. This Manifestation according to Mormons confi rms that The Book of Mormon is true and that Joseph Smith is a true prophet from God. Should a true Christian pray about the Book of Mormon? Absolutely No!
3 For details of purchase, go to www.aeronmorgan.org where you can locate (1) advert for the book; (2) cost of the book, plus p/p for the different countries (viz. USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand etc); and (3) the postal address (or email/phone) you can contact to place any orders.
4 http://www.utlm.org/onlineresources/josephsmithsbank. htm—Has a great write up on the banking incident. Warren Parrish, who had been an offi cer in the bank and had apostatised from the church, made this statement: “I have listened to him [i.e. Smith] with feelings of no ordinary kind, when he declared that the AUDIBLE VOICE OF GOD, INSTRUCTED HIM TO ESTABLISH A BANKINGANTI BANKING INSTITUTION, who like Aaron’s rod SHALL SWALLOW UP ALL OTHER BANKS (the Bank of Mormon excepted,) and grow and fl ourish and spread from the rivers to the ends of the earth, and survive when all others should be laid in ruins.” (Painesville Republican, February 22, 1838, as quoted in Confl ict at Kirtland, page 297). The Bank Failed! “Thirteen suits were brought against him between June 1837 and April 1839, to collect sums totaling nearly $25,000. The damages asked amounted to almost $35,000. He was arrested seven times in four months, and his followers managed heroically to raise the $38,428 required for bail. Of the thirteen suits only six were settled out of court — about $12,000 out of the $25,000. In the other seven the creditors either were awarded damages or won them by default.” Joseph had many additional debts that never resulted in court action. Some years later he compiled a list of still outstanding Kirtland loans, which amounted to more than $33,000. If one adds to these the two great loans of $30,000 and $60,000 borrowed in New York and Buffalo in 1836, it would seem that the Mormon leaders owed to non-Mormon individuals and fi rms well over $150,000.” (No Man Knows My History, pp. 199-202) ISBN-13: 978-0679730545 by Fawn Brodie.
5 Smith was arrested numerous times, but had a knack of escaping from custody. However when he was arrested and imprisoned at Liberty Jail (1844) measures were taken to ensure that he could not escape. Smith managed to receive two smuggled revolvers which he used in the fi re fi ght at Liberty Jail which ultimately led to his death. http://www.mission2mormons.org/timeline.html; http:// www.centerplace.org/history/misc/js3mem/111334.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyman_Wight
6 There are nine separate accounts of the First Vision, which all vary about Smith’s Age, date and time when this event occurred. An excellent source is —http:// www.irr.org/mit/First-Vision-Accounts.html. To write about each account would require a large amount of space. It took the church until 1838 to come up with the “offi cial” account. This First Vision account has caused the LDS great embarrassment as it really shows Smith to be a fraudulent liar and a deceiver. The LDS Church’s roots are fi rmly anchored in deception from the very beginning.


FROM WIKIPEDIA: MILITIA (United States) There is a long history of militia in the United States, starting before the country became a nation, with the colonial militias normally consisting of all adult male citizens of a community, town, or local region. This practice was continued after the signing of the U.S. Constitution, and remained relatively unchanged until the late 1800s. After the civil war, state guard units composed of select militia were created. After 1903, the militia was divided into two groups, unorganised and organised. Organised units were created from portions of the former state guards and became state national guard units. Some states later created state defense forces for assistance in local emergencies. Privately organised militias, not affi liated with any government organisation, and usually formed by citizens suspicious of the activities and politics of federal and state governments, blossomed in the mid 1990s. The Constitutional Militia Movement consists of citizen groups who espouse strict construction of the U.S. Constitution according to the original understanding and intent of the Founding Fathers of the United States, especially in regard to the right to keep and bear arms (see Second Amendment to the United States Constitution). Constitutional Militias train in the proper and safe use of fi rearms, that they may be effective if called upon to uphold liberty, protect the people in times of crisis (i.e. disasters such as Hurricane Katrina), or to defend against invasion and terrorism. U.S. Constitution Art. I Sec. 8 Cl. 15 & 16. According to Title 10, USC, Section 311, all able bodied males between the ages of 17 and 45 not serving in the armed forces or state national guard units are considered the unorganised militia, as well as all commissioned female offi cers of state national guard units.“That the People have a right to keep and bear Arms; that a well regulated Militia, composed of the Body of the People, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free state...” —George Mason, declaration of “the essential and unalienable Rights of the People,” later adopted by the Virginia ratifi cation convention, 1788.

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Appeared in Issue 13.1 CETF 39 MARCH 2007
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